The word guitar may also be a Persian loanword to Iberian Arabic. The word qitara is an Arabic name for various members of the lute family that preceded the Western guitar. The name guitarra was introduced into Spanish when guitars were brought into hort list of signifiant compositions for the contemporary classical guitar.
Gittern The gittern, English for renaissance guitar is a musical instrument resembling a small lute or guitar. It is related to but is not a citole, another medieval instrument. The gittern was carved from a single piece of wood with a curved ("sickle-shaped") pegbox. An example has survived from around 1450. The renaissance five-string guitar (Text needed) The vihuela Main article: Vihuela Orpheus playing a vihuela. Image from the famous tabulature by Luis de Milán, Libro de música de vihuela de mano intitulado El maestro (1536).
The text surrounding the image praises Orpheus as the inventor of vihuela. Most vihuelas are much smaller than the engraving suggests. Enlarge Orpheus playing a vihuela. Image from the famous tabulature by Luis de Milán, Libro de música de vihuela de mano intitulado El maestro (1536). The text surrounding the image praises Orpheus as the inventor of vihuela. Most vihuelas are much smaller than the engraving suggests. Instrument The Spanish vihuela appears to be an intermediate form between the ancestral guitar and the modern guitar, with lute-style tuning and a small, but guitar-like body.
It is not clear whether this represents a transitional form or simply a design that combined features from the two families of instruments. In favor of the latter view, the reshaping of the vihuela into a guitar-like form can be seen as a strategy of differentiating the European lute visually from the Moorish oud. The Ancient Iranian lute, called tar in Persian also is found in the word guitar.
The tar is thousands of years old, and could be found in 2, 3, 5, and 6 string variations. Technique Repertoire See main article Vihuela repertoire. Baroque guitar The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer, guitar Voboam Enlarge The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer, guitar Voboam See main article about the Baroque guitar See also Baroque music Instrument The voboam family, Paris, France.
Nicholas Alexandre Voboam II, René Voboam, Domenico Sellas Technique Repertoire Baroque guitar repertoire Main compositions and composers for the baroque guitar: * Gaspar Sanz (1640-1710 Spain) * Francesco Corbetta 1615-1681 (Spain) * Robert de Visée (c.1650- 1725) (France) Classical music era - contemporary guitar "Early romantic guitar" or "Guitar during the Classical music era" See main article Early romantic guitar (Text needed) Instrument The earliest extant six string guitar was built in 1779 by Gaetano Vinaccia (1759 - after 1831) in Naples, Italy.
The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin. This guitar has been examined and does not show tell-tale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar. Authenticity of guitars before the 1790's is often in question. This also corresponds to when Moretti's 6-string method appeared, in 1792. Technique (Text needed) Repertoire (Text needed) Notable composers: * Luigi Boccherini 1743-1805 Romantic guitar See main article Romantic guitar (Introduction needed) Instrument Technique Repertoire See main article Romantic guitar repertoire The first 'Golden Age' of the classical guitar repertoire.
Composer-guitarists. Notable composers:
* Mauro Giuliani 1781-1829
* Johann Kaspar Mertz 1806-1856
* Giulio Regondi 1822-1872
* Fernando Sor 1778-1839 Modern classical guitar Agustín Barrios Enlarge Agustín Barrios . See also Modern art and 20th century classical music Instrument Antonio de Torres Jurado, Ignacio Fleta, Hermann Hauser Sr., Robert Bouchet Technique Francisco Tárrega, Emilio Pujol, Andrés Segovia Repertoire In the 20th century, many non-guitarist composers wrote for the instrument, which previously only players of the instrument had done. Francisco Tárrega, Roberto Gerhard (1896-1970), Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959).
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